The early gestation period and long returns to oestrus in cattle

The fertility of dairy cattle has declined over the last 30 years. As a push for higher milk production has taken place, consideration of the negative impact on fertility has not been sufficiently add...


Pericardial disease in the dog and cat

The pericardium is a double-walled sac that surrounds the heart and the roots of the great vessels. Although survival is possible without a pericardium, it does serve several functions: balancing righ...


Ocular surface disease in dogs part 1: aetiopathogenesis and clinical signs

(DED) is a commonly diagnosed disorder in small animals. It has been historically described as a quantitative or qualitative deficiency in tear production; however, the pathogenesis of the disease is ...


Reducing risk in equine anaesthesia part 1: recognising risk factors and addressing common complications

Performing general anaesthesia in horses carries an inherent risk. Knowledge of the physiological, pharmacological and practical considerations unique to horses is important to be able to minimise thi...


Toxoplasma gondii – the facts

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was initially isolated from the rodent Ctenodactylus gundi, and it has been found worldwide from Alaska to Australia with nearly one third of the human populat...


Canine infective endocarditis

Canine infective endocarditis is defined as an infection of the endocardium, commonly involving one or more heart valves and leading to proliferative (vegetative) or erosive lesions. Prerequisites for...


Hip dysplasia: understanding the options (conservative management)

Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a common cause of hind limb lameness in dogs, and may be managed either conservatively or surgically. There is no single treatment option that is appropriate for every do...


Xylitol toxicosis in dogs

Xylitol is toxic to dogs, causing hypoglycaemia and, in some cases, liver failure. This sweetener is found in many foods, medicines and confectionary, particularly chewing gums, because it has anticar...


Rehabilitating the canine cruciate patient: part two

Surgery to correct cranial cruciate ligament rupture is commonly performed in both first opinion and referral practice. Following on from part one of this article which discusses the background aetiol...


Endo and ectoparasites in rabbits

There are numerous endo and ectoparasites that can affect domestic rabbits. Many of these may not have a clinical effect on the rabbit and treatment may not therefore be required. However, for those t...


Supraglottic airways devices: use in veterinary medicine

V-gels® (Docsinnovent Ltd, UK) are the first veterinary supraglottic airway devices (SADs) that have been developed. They can be used as an alternative to endotracheal intubation. Species that would b...


Feline myasthenia gravis: a review

Myasthenia gravis is an immune mediated disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Both an acquired and a congenital form have been reported in cats. Generalised weakness is considered a hallmark of myas...

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